In research, evaluating the usefulness of a resource and recording the
citations for it are followed by information gleaning � taking the
relevant information from the source as evidence upon which to base
your paper. How you use the information depends on the type of
evidence the information represents. Below are just a few of the many
categories evidence may fall into and which should be taken into
consideration while preparing your dissertation.

Anecdotal Evidence

Anecdotal evidence is evidence of one incident or condition that seems
to support a give hypothesis or thought, but is not absolute, allowing
other evidence that may refute the anecdotal evidence as either an
anomaly or a misinterpretation of the incident or condition. However,
anecdotal evidence can be effective at refuting another claim by
showing that the claim does not always apply.

Testimonial Evidence
Testimonial evidence is drawn from an expert in a given field or the
observations of an eyewitness to an event. Testimonial evidence is
strongest when it comes from an expert or an individual such as a
police officer or other such official who is skilled in observing and
reporting important facts and observations.

Statistical Evidence
Statistical evidence is based on an aggregate of collected data.
Caution is advised in the use of statistical data, however. A trend
indicated by a small sampling of available information may not reveal
the true nature of the information or environment. The larger the
sample collected for analysis, the lower this potential is present,
though without polling all potential members of a given sample, this
error potential is never zero.

Analogical Evidence

This is evidence, commonly presented in an argumentative or
adversarial environment, that portends to prove a thought or idea by
logical analysis comparing the evidence to a similar item or condition
and claiming what is true for one, must be true for the other.

Experimental Evidence
Experimental evidence comes from scientific experimentation that
yields a particular result which supports a give argument or theory.
Experimental evidence must be reproducible to be considered valid.
Even a single failure of reproduction may cause the value of the
evidence to become suspect.

Physical Evidence
Physical evidence, when genuine and properly interpreted, can be some
of the most supportive of all evidences. Physical evidence consists of
any evidence that may be physically touched and/or tested by physical,
chemical, or electromagnetic means. Evidence gathered at a crime scene
would fit into the category of physical evidence.

Scientific Evidence
Scientific Evidence is evidence that supports or refutes a scientific
hypothesis or theory. One type of scientific evidence is that which is
derived from experimental evidence that has proven valid by repetition
of the experiment that achieved the same results as the original
experiment. Other types of scientific evidence may be mathematical in
nature, using specific formulae to prove or disprove a scientific
hypothesis or theory that is mathematical in nature.

Contradictory Evidence
This is evidence that contradicts the given hypothesis or theory.
Contradictory evidence may be of any other evidence type that shows a
hypothesis or theory invalid by showing there are exceptions to it.
When preparing any academic document, omission of contradictory
evidence is often considered dishonesty. Inclusion of such evidence in
the discussion of the topic shows the student to be honest and gives
the student a chance to argue why the contradiction exists or is
irrelevant to his or her core argument, position or hypothesis.